Glossary

A

AAA Rating

The highest credit Rating for a Bond or company.

Accidental damage

Accidental damage is sudden and unintentional physical damage that happens unexpectedly.

Active Management

The traditional investment approach where fund managers actively build and change a portfolio of assets (e.g. stocks and shares) in order to take advantage of what they believe are the best opportunities.

Actuary

Business professional who analyses the financial consequences of risk.

Added Years (of Service)

Buying a specific number of added years in a final salary scheme which will increase the service on which your pension is based.

Additional Bonus

A discretionary bonus that we may declare in relation to a With-Profits Pension Annuity.

Additional Rate Tax

Paying Additional Rate Tax will depend on your income and where you reside.  Please refer to gov.uk for more information and the rates that will be applicable to you and your circumstances.

Adviser charging

An agreement between you and your financial adviser to pay him or her directly for the services you receive initially and ongoing. The payment may be made directly, as a fee, or taken directly from your investment as a matched deduction which will be facilitated by a product provider.

Annual Allowance

The Annual Allowance is a limit to the amount of pension savings you can make, before you face a tax charge. You may be able to "carry forward" unused allowance from the last three years to increase your limit for the current year. Your annual allowance includes all the payments made into your pension by you, your employer, or any third party. It also includes most increases in benefits if you are an active member of a defined benefit scheme (also called final salary, or career average scheme).

Tax can be tricky, so you should seek advice if you feel this will affect you. For more information please visit www.pru.co.uk/tax or visit the HMRC website at www.hmrc.gov.uk.

Annual Management Charge (AMC)

We take an AMC for looking after your investment. The charge is the base charge and does not take into account any discounts that may be applied.

Further costs

There are other costs which aren't covered by the AMC. These can include, for example, maintenance costs for property investments and costs associated with investing in infrastructure, such as utilities, transport and renewable energy. These can vary over time.

Annualised

Converted to a yearly figure. i.e. Taking a five-­year Return and converting it to tell you what that would mean for just one of those five years.

Annuity

An annuity guarantees to provide you with a regular income for the rest of your life, in return for you paying over a lump sum from your pension fund.

Annuity Rate

The factor used to calculate the amount of income payable, following investment of a lump sum in an annuity.

Anticipated Bonus Rate (ABR)

This is your estimate of the rate of future bonus we'll declare each year in relation to a With-Profits Pension Annuity. It was used to determine your starting income and it also determines how your income changes each year. The higher the ABR, the higher your starting income was. However, a higher ABR also means your income has less potential for growth and there is a greater chance your income will fall in the future.

Asset Allocation

The proportion of investments in a fund or portfolio held in different asset classes such as equities, fixed interest and cash.

Asset Classes

The different types of assets available to investors. For example, equities, cash, fixed interest or property.

Assets

Items that are owned by an individual such as property and investments. Money in a bank or building society account is known as a liquid asset. Assets may also be held in a fund.

Assignment

The formal transfer of rights to another party. For example, the rights to receive the benefits of a life insurance policy to repay a debt/loan.

Association of British Insurers (ABI)

The trade association for insurance companies in the UK.

Association of British Insurers (ABI) sectors

The ABI Sectors are a system for the classification of life and pension funds. Every sector sets clear criteria that must be followed by funds wishing to belong to that sector. It ensures that life and pensions funds operating similar investment strategies are grouped together.

AVC (Additional Voluntary Contributions)

Non compulsory additional payments made by a member of an employer's pension scheme to help fund for retirement.

B

Balanced Managed Fund

A fund that aims to provide capital growth through investments in a diversified portfolio of collective investments.

Base Rate

An interest rate set by the Bank of England which is used as a benchmark by UK lenders.

Basic Materials Sector

A category of stocks covering companies involved with the discovery, development and processing of raw materials. The basic materials sector includes the mining and refining of metals, chemical producers and forestry products.

Basic Rate Tax

This is the basic rate of income tax in the UK. For more information please visit www.pru.co.uk/tax

Basic State Pension

The flat rate (not earnings-related) state pension paid to all who have met the minimum National Insurance contribution requirements. This changes each year on 6 April.

To satisfy the minimum National Insurance contributions requirement you need to have built up enough qualifying years. You will need 30 qualifying years for a full basic state pension.

For more information please visit www.pru.co.uk/tax.

The above is based on our understanding,  of current legislation and HM Revenue & Customs' practice, all of which is subject to change without notice. The impact of taxation (and any tax reliefs) depends on individual circumstances.

Basis Point

A measure, which is often used in describing small percentages. Each basis point is equal to 0.01%, 25 basis points equals 0.25%.

Bear Market

A market where prices are falling against a background of gloomy investors.

Benchmark

A tool with which to measure a fund's performance - often a market Index or model portfolio.

Beneficiary

This is someone who benefits from a will, trust, pension fund or a life assurance policy.

Bid (Selling) Price

The price you get when you sell shares, bonds or units in a unit trust. The price you buy shares, bonds or units in a unit trust is known as the Offer (Buying) Price. The difference between the two is often referred to as a Bid Offer Spread.

Blue Chip

A leading company that is well established and tends to be regarded as relatively safe. Comes from the colour of the 2nd highest value poker chip.

Bond

Lower to medium risk loans to the government or companies that pay you a fixed rate of interest.

Bottom - Up Analysis

Analysis of individual companies, whereby that company's history, management and potential are considered more important than general market trends (as opposed to Top­Down).

Boutique managed Funds

Investment funds that are specialised in some way either through the expertise needed to manage the portfolio or because it has an unusual theme or a collection of funds under one house.

These 'boutique' funds are typically offered by smaller, specialist firms as opposed to large investment management companies.

British Government Stocks

See "Gilts".

Bull Market

A market where prices increase against a background of optimistic investors.

Buying (Offer) Price

The price at which you can buy shares, bonds or units in a unit trust.

C

Cancellation Period

The period in which you are entitled to change your mind and cancel a financial commitment. Any money already paid will be returned although there is a risk less may be returned - for example, if the value of an investment contract has fallen during the cancellation period.

Capital

The amount you invest in any type of savings or investment product.

Capital Charge

When a unit trust manager takes the management charges out of the fund's capital instead of the income it has produced.

Capital Gains Tax (CGT)

You make a 'capital gain' if you sell assets such as shares or property for more than they cost you. Each tax year you are allowed to make gains up to a certain amount without paying any tax. For more information please visit pru.co.uk/tax or visit the HMRC website at hmrc.gov.uk

Capital Growth/Gain

Any money you receive in addition to the capital you've invested when you cash in your investment.

Capped Interest Rate

Where the interest rate can go up or down, but cannot exceed a certain level for a set time.

Career Average Schemes

This provides a pension that is based on your earnings and how long you have been in the scheme.

Cash-in Value

The amount you get if you cash in an investment.

Cautious Managed Fund

A fund that aims to provide a combination of income and capital growth, while reducing risk by diversifying your investments.

Certificates of Deposit

These are money market investments that are generally issued by banks against a security. A certificate of deposit usually pays interest (which can vary) and entitles the bearer to receive a set interest rate up until a set maturity date and can be issued in any currency or denomination.

Closed Ended Funds

This describes a collective investment scheme which has a limited number of shares (or units). The shares are then traded on an exchange or directly through the fund manager to create a secondary market subject to market forces.

Collective Investments

These pool money from many different investors into one fund, such as a unit trust, open ended investment company (OEIC) or investment trust.

Commission

Money paid by a financial company to a third party (eg an Independent Financial Adviser or direct agent) for selling a product. The financial company may recover the cost of the commission through charges to the client.

Commodities

These are raw materials and foodstuffs that can be divided into 5 main categories: Agriculturals (e.g. wheat and potatoes), Softs (e.g. coffee and cocoa), Precious Metals (e.g. gold and silver), Non­Ferrous Metals (e.g. copper and lead) and Energies (e.g. oil and gas).

Company Pension Schemes

A pension scheme provided (sponsored) by an employer for its employees. Company pension schemes can be defined benefit schemes (final salary schemes) or defined contribution schemes (money purchase schemes).

Compound Interest

In, for example, a deposit account. This is where interest is added to both capital and the accrued interest from time to time. The longer a customer leaves an investment the more advantage they can take of compound interest. For example, if in year one a customer is paid 10% on his/her £100 investment, at the end of the year the investment is worth £110. In year two, with compound interest taken into account, the customer now earns 10% on £110, giving £121 at the end of the year.

Consumer Prices Index (CPI)

Measures the prices of a Fixed "basket of goods" bought by a typical consumer. Used as a measurement of inflation

Contracted Out/In

Contracting out was a system where employees gave up their right to additional state pension, firstly in the form or the state earnings related pension scheme (Serps) then from 2002 in the form of the state second pension (S2P) In return workers and their employers paid reduced national insurance.

Contributory Pension

A company pension scheme where the employee contributes as well as the employer.

Conventional Annuity

One type of conventional annuity is a guaranteed annuity. A guaranteed annuity is a pension annuity that guarantees to provide you with a regular income usually for the rest of your life in return for you paying over a lump sum from your pension fund. It can provide a guaranteed level of income which stays the same each year, an income that increases by a fixed percentage or one that changes in line with inflation. The level of income you receive will depend on various factors including your age and size of your pension fund.

Convertible Bonds (can also be called Deferred Equity)

These are corporate bonds that are exchangeable for a set number of another form of investment (for example, common shares) at a prestated price.

Convertible Term Assurance

A life assurance policy which pays out if the policyholder dies within the period of policy, but also allows the customer to convert to another type of plan offered by that provider without requiring any proof of health at the time of conversion within certain limits.

Corporate Bond

A loan to a company that earns you income in the form of interest. (See also Bond).

Coupon

The interest rate applied to the value of a corporate bond or gilt (see Government bond).

Credit Rating

Formal evaluation of a company's loan­-repayment history and current ability to repay its financial liabilities. Awarded by agencies such as Standard & Poor's and Moody's. AAA grade is the highest.

Cyclicals

Companies whose business prospects are linked to the Business Cycle - construction companies, for example

D

Dax Index

A main Index of the German Stock Exchange.

Default Risk

This is the possibility that the issuer of a bond will be unable to make payments when they are due.

Defensive Stocks

Shares in companies whose business conditions are not particularly linked to the Business Cycle. They provide goods for which demand does not tend to be affected by Recession - utilities and basic food producers, for example.

Deferred (delayed) Annuity Purchase

An option available to a member of certain types of pension scheme, where an annuity income is determined some years before the date income is due to start, and is conditional upon agreed contributions being paid.

Defined benefit

A company pension scheme where the pension an employee receives is linked to their length of scheme service and size of their salary as defined in the scheme rules. They are often referred to as final salary schemes.

Defined Benefit Pension Scheme

A company pension scheme where the pension an employee receives is linked to their length of scheme service and size of their salary as defined in the scheme rules. They are often referred to as final salary schemes.

Defined contribution

A company pension scheme where the contributions made by the employer and employee are set and the final pension an employee receives depends on a number of factors including the size of their fund on retirement. This final fund is then used to buy an annuity or an unsecured pension (income drawdown). These are also referred to as money purchase schemes.

Defined Contribution Pension Scheme

A company pension scheme where the contributions made by the employer and employee are set and the final pension an employee receives depends on a number of factors including the size of their fund on retirement. This final fund is then used to buy an annuity or an unsecured pension (income drawdown). These are also referred to as money purchase schemes.

Deflation

Fall in the general level of prices of goods and services in the economy.

Deposit Account

A savings account from a bank or building society that pays interest on the amount of money held in it.

Depositary

One to whom something is given in trust for storage or safekeeping. (A depository is the facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping.) Open Ended Investment Companies (OEICs) are overseen by an independent body known as the depositary. For unit trusts this is called a trustee.

Deposits

Money that is invested with banks, building societies and other organisations to earn interest.

Derivatives

These cover products such as futures and options which are generally an arrangement to buy or sell a standard quantity of a specified asset on a fixed future date at a price agreed today. Also considered to be a financial instrument whose value is dependent upon the value of an underlying asset.

Devaluation

A drop in the value of a currency compared to other currencies. This could either be a deliberate policy by a government, or the effect of supply and demand for that currency.

Distribution

When a company pays money (dividends) to its shareholders, or when a unit trust pays income to unit holders.

Diversification

Spreading your investments to help reduce the risk within your portfolio.

Dividend

A payment made by a company to its shareholders. The size of the payment is usually determined by the size of the company's profits and is usually paid twice a year, although a company does not have to pay a dividend at all.

Dividend Yield

The Dividend per share expressed as a percentage of the share's market price.

Domicile

Normally the country where you have your permanent home or principal establishment and to where, whenever you are absent, you intend to return. You can only have one domicile at a time. For inheritance tax purposes for instance, you are deemed domiciled in the UK if you spend 17 out of 20 tax years in the UK.

Your 'domicile of origin' is acquired from your father when you are born, or from your mother if they were not married at the time of your birth. You can legally change your domicile in certain circumstances.

Domicile is a legal concept and is distinct from residence, which is a HMRC categorisation of how many days per tax year you spend in a country. You are considered resident in the UK for tax purposes if you spend more than 183 days per tax year in the country.

Please note - this is only a summary of the requirements, more information is available from HMRC.

The above is based on our understanding of current legislation and HM Revenue & Customs' practice, all of which is subject to change without notice. The impact of taxation (and any tax reliefs) depends on individual circumstances. This is only a summary of the requirements and more information is available from HMRC.

Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA)

A widely used Index of the US stockmarket. This is a weighted average of the prices of 30 Blue Chip New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) shares.

Dual Priced

Dual priced funds have a buying (offer) price and selling or (bid) price. The buying price is higher than the selling price - and this difference is known as the spread or bid-offer spread. The difference is typically 5% and may vary to reflect changes in the market.

Duration

A measure of the sensitivity of the price of a Bond to changes to interest rates. Similarly, the Duration of a Bond fund measures the sensitivity of all the Bonds in that fund to movements in interest rates. It is a widely used measure of how risky a Bond or a portfolio of Bonds is.

E

Early Retirement

When a member starts to take their pension before the normal retirement date of the scheme.

Earnings per Share

A company's profit after tax has been paid, divided by the number of shares it has in issue.

Emergency Fund

Cash set aside in a dedicated interest account to cover unanticipated financial emergencies such as property repairs, medical expenses and car repairs.

Employer Pension Schemes

A pension scheme provided (sponsored) by an employer for its employees. Company pension schemes can be defined benefit schemes (final salary schemes) or defined contribution schemes (money purchase schemes).

Endowment

A life assurance policy that pays out a lump sum after a specific period of time or on the earlier death of the policyholder. They can be used as a vehicle for saving or as a way to repay a mortgage. It is important to remember that an endowment is a medium to long term commitment. A customer who surrenders early may not get back the amount of money they have invested.

Equities

Also known as shares or stocks, these represent a share of the ownership of a company. Shares can provide regular payments, known as dividends, and share price changes as the value of the company changes.

Over the longer term, equities can offer greater growth potential than many other asset types. But the value of the equities can go up and down a lot and tend to carry a higher risk than corporate or government bonds or money market instruments.

Equity

Also known as shares or stocks, these represent a share of the ownership of a company. Shares can provide regular payments, known as dividends, and share price changes as the value of the company changes.

Over the longer term, equities can offer greater growth potential than many other asset types. But the value of the equities can go up and down a lot and tend to carry a higher risk than corporate or government bonds or money market instruments.

Equity Investment Funds

An investment fund that invests in UK shares or in overseas companies.

Equity Release Scheme

Schemes that allow homeowners to release cash from the value of their property.

There are two types of equity release schemes. A lifetime mortgage scheme allows you to raise money against the value of your property while you still own it and a home reversion scheme allows you to sell all or part of your home to a reversion company. The options for releasing the money are not standardised across the industry and depend upon the product terms.

Escalation

When an annuity payment is automatically increased at regular intervals by a fixed percentage rate.

Estate

Assets owned by an individual at death.

Ethical Funds

These aim to make socially responsible investments (they do not invest in companies that have interests in socially unacceptable markets or produce harmful products or by-products, such as high levels of environmental pollution).

Eurobonds

A Eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued. It can be categorized according to the currency in which it is issued. For example, a British company may issue a Eurobond in Germany, denominating it in U.S. dollars.

European Central Bank (ECB)

The central bank of the member countries of the Eurozone. It sets interest rates throughout the Eurozone.

Excess

The amount you must pay towards any claim. The excess applies to each insured person and each event that leads to a claim.

Exchange-Traded Fund

This is an investment vehicle the units of which are traded on a stock exchange. An exchange traded funds can hold a range of assets such as stocks, bonds or even commodities. Most track an index, such as the FTSE All­-Share or the S&P 500.

Executor(s)

Individual(s) who are appointed in a will to deal with the wishes of the deceased, in administering their estate.

F

Fault Claim

Any claim where the insurer can't recover their full costs from another party. This would include things like theft, vandalism, hit and run or accidents involving only one vehicle. It's not a comment on who's to blame for an incident.

Federal Reserve Board (Fed)

The US central bank.

Final Salary Scheme

A company pension scheme where the final pension an employee receives is linked to the size of their final salary and the number of years they have been a member of the scheme. They are also referred to as defined benefit pension schemes.

Financial Adviser

There are four main classes of adviser: tied advisers (working for one financial institution), multi-tied advisers (paid by more than one financial institution), whole of market advisers (working with all companies but only on a commission basis) and independent financial advisers. Independent financial advisers must offer their clients the option to pay for advice by fee rather than commission.

Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)

The FCA is an independent body that regulates the financial services industry in the UK. The FCA has been given a wide range of rule-making, investigatory and enforcement powers in order to meet its four statutory objectives. In meeting these, they are also obliged to have regard to the Principles of Good Regulation. The 4 statutory objectives are:

  • Market confidence - maintaining confidence in the UK financial system;
  • Financial stability - contributing to the protection and enhancement of stability of the UK financial system;
  • Consumer protection - securing the appropriate degree of protection for consumers; and
  • The reduction of financial crime - reducing the extent to which it is possible for a regulated business to be used for a purpose connected with financial crime.

Financial Services Compensation scheme

The Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) is the UK's statutory compensation scheme for customers of authorised financial services firms. This means that FSCS can pay compensation if a firm is unable, or likely to be unable, to pay claims against it.

Fiscal Policy

A government's spending and taxation policy.

Fiscal Surplus - Also Budget Surplus

The amount by which a government's income (from tax revenues, etc) exceeds its spending (as opposed to Fiscal/Budget Deficit)

Fixed Interest Rate

An interest rate that does not change during an investment or borrowing period.

Fixed Interest Securities

More commonly known as "bonds" these are loans issued by companies or by governments in order to raise money. Bonds issued by companies are called corporate bonds, those issued by the UK government are called gilts and those issued by the US government are called treasury bonds. In effect all bonds are IOUs that promise to pay a sum on a specified date and pay a fixed rate of interest along the way.

Fixed-rate bonds

Fixed rate bonds are usually savings accounts that pay a set rate of interest, agreed at the outset, for a certain term.

Flexi-access drawdown

A form of drawdown which  allows you to take an unlimited amount of income or lump sums from a pension fund. This  replaces flexible and capped drawdown, although existing capped drawdown plans are continuing.

Floating Rate Notes (FRN's)

These are basically short-term loans to financial organisations, such as banks, under which the investor receives interest payments from that financial organisation. At the end of an agreed period the financial organisation has to repay the loan. The interest payment rates are linked to a specified "floating" rate. In legacy instruments, this was typically the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) though post cessation of LIBOR, these are being replaced by use of alternative rates such as the Sterling Overnight Index Average (SONIA). This means that interest rate payments may go up or down.

Forward Priced

If a fund is forward priced , it means that the fund gets the next available price after monies are invested.

Forwards Contract (or Forwards)

These are agreements between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a fixed future date for a price determined at the time of dealing.

Free Standing Additional Voluntary Contribution (FSAVC)

A non-compulsory payment made by a member of a company pension scheme who wants to boost their retirement benefits, but keep the payments separate from their occupational fund. Payments are made into a separate FSAVC fund.

FTSE 100 Index*

An index of the share prices of the 100 largest companies (by market capitalisation) in the UK.

FTSE is a trademark jointly owned by the London Stock Exchange plc and The Financial Times Limited and is used by FTSE International Limited ("FTSE") under licence. The FTSE 100 index is calculated solely by FTSE. FTSE does not sponsor, endorse, or promote this website and is not in any way connected to it and does not accept any liability in relation to its issue, operation and trading. All copyright in the index values and constituent list vests in FTSE.

FTSE All-Share Index*

An index of the share prices of more than 800 leading companies and investment trusts on the London Stock Exchange.

FTSE is a trademark jointly owned by the London Stock Exchange plc and The Financial Times Limited and is used by FTSE International Limited ("FTSE") under licence. The FTSE 100 index is calculated solely by FTSE. FTSE does not sponsor, endorse, or promote this website and is not in any way connected to it and does not accept any liability in relation to its issue, operation and trading. All copyright in the index values and constituent list vests in FTSE.

FTSE Europe (ex UK) Index*

The FTSE Europe ex UK Index is part of a range of indexes designed to help investors benchmark their European investments. The index comprises Large  and Mid cap stocks providing coverage of the various Developed & Secondary Emerging markets in Europe excluding the UK.

FTSE Small Cap Index*

The FTSE Small Cap consists of companies outside of the FTSE 350 Index and represents approximately 2% of the UK market capitalisation.

FTSE World Index*

An Index that measures the combined performance of the major markets around the world.

FTSE World Japan Index*

The FTSE Japan Index forms part of the FTSE Global Equity Index Series. It contains over 460 large and mid cap stocks capturing 90% of the Japanese market.

Fully Contracted Out Policy

Pension policy where the only payment received is for 'contracting out' of the State Second Pension (see Rebate Only Personal Pension).

Fund

A pool of money normally set apart for a purpose, for example a pension fund to provide pensions.

Fund Benchmark

A measure against which performance of an investment (fund) is to be judged.

Fund Manager

An individual who is employed by a company to manage money. It is a fund manager's aim to buy shares or other assets such as property or bonds that they believe will increase in value or provide a level of income.

Fund of Funds

A "fund of funds" (FOF) is an investment strategy of holding a portfolio of other investment funds rather than investing directly in shares, bonds or other securities. This type of investing is often referred to as multi-manager investment. A fund of funds may be 'fettered', meaning that it invests only in funds managed by the same investment company, or 'unfettered', meaning that it can invest in external funds.

Fund Value

The monetary value of a fund, which is calculated by adding up the value of its underlying assets. For instance, the price of units in a unit trust is worked out from the value of all its holdings divided by the number of units issued.

*

"FTSE" is a trade mark of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and is used by FTSE International Limited under licence. All rights in the FTSE indices and / or FTSE ratings vest in FTSE and/or its licensors. Neither FTSE nor its licensors accept any liability for any errors or omissions in the FTSE indices and / or FTSE ratings or underlying data. No further distribution of FTSE Data is permitted without FTSE’s express written consent. " 

G

GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

A measure of the value of all goods and services produced in an economy in a year.

Gift

A transfer of goods or property to another party. There are limits to the value and number of gifts you can make without any immediate or future inheritance tax liability.

Gilt

A bond issued by the British Government.

Government Sovereign Bond

A government debt issued in a foreign currency.

Gross Earnings

Earnings before income tax and other deductions are taken.

Gross Income Reinvested

Any income that the fund produces ( e.g. interest and dividends) is reinvested back in to the fund and is not liable for UK tax.

Gross Interest

The amount of interest you receive without any income tax or charges deducted.

Gross Pension Contribution

A payment to a pension scheme deducted from earnings before the deduction of income tax.

Group Personal Pension (GPP)

A fund that aims to maintain a balance between investments aiming to produce growth and those generating income.

Growth & Income Fund

A fund which maintains a balance between investments aiming to produce growth and those generating income.

Growth Fund

This aims to maximise growth over the medium to long term by investing in shares, property, fixed interest and other investments.

Growth Investing

An investment process that chooses to invest in shares that generally produce lower Dividends and have high expectations of future growth.

Guaranteed Annuity Rate

A guaranteed annuity rate guarantees that the annuity rate we offer will always be at a certain minimum level. If your pension includes a guaranteed annuity rate, it means you could get a higher income than normal, especially when annuity rates are low.

Guaranteed Income Bond

A guaranteed income from a fixed-term investment - usually three to five years - paid monthly or annually. Capital is generally secure so this is a low risk investment, but penalties usually apply for early withdrawal.

Guaranteed Minimum Pension

The minimum pension which a company final salary pension scheme must provide in respect of contributions paid between April 1978 and April 1997, as a condition of contracting out of the State Earnings Related Pension Scheme.

Guaranteed Pension Annuity

This is our conventional annuity - please see conventional annuity. It guarantees to pay a regular income usually for life. Your income can always stay the same, increase each year by a fixed percentage or change each year in line with the Retail Prices Index (RPI).

Guarantee period

This is the minimum number of years from the start of your annuity in which income will continue to be paid, even if you die during that period. The maximum guarantee period you can select is 10 years and it must be included at the start. 

H

Hedged Back to Sterling

This is a specific example of hedging where the trader is trying to protect an existing or anticipated position from an unwanted move in sterling exchange rates.

Hedging

A strategy employed in order to reduce or mitigate risk. Hedging involves making an offsetting transaction in one market in order to protect against possible losses in another. Currency hedging is a specific example of hedging where the fund manager tries to protect an existing or anticipated position from an unwanted move in exchange rates.

High Income Bonds

A medium risk bond invested over a fixed period with no capital guarantees. These provide a fixed rate of income, either monthly or annually, which is net of basic tax. If you are a higher rate tax payer you will need to pay the additional tax. There may be penalties for early withdrawal.

High Yield Bond

This is a bond that generally has a low (or "non­-investment grade") credit rating and which offers higher interest payments than a bond with a higher credit rating due to the increased risk of default by the company issuing the bond. It can also be known as a "junk" bond.

Higher Rate Tax

The higher rate of income tax in the UK. For more information please visit www.pru.co.uk/tax.

Historic Priced

If a fund is historically priced, it means that the unit price is set before money is invested.

Home Reversion Plan

The sale of part of or your entire home to a reversion company in return for a lump sum, regular income or a combination of the two. You can continue to live in your home until you die or go into long-term care. When your home is sold the percentage you sold will go to the plan provider. 

I

iBoxx Indices

iBoxx indices cover the cash bond market. Underlying bond prices and indices are available in real time. The indices can be used as benchmarks, asset allocation and performance evaluation.

Illustration

An example of the potential growth you may expect to receive from an investment. The growth rates used are set by the industry regulator, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). It is important to remember that the actual return received could be higher or lower than that shown on the illustration.

Income

Money received by an individual for example as a salary or from investments which is usually subject to income tax. Cash deposits and bonds will provide income in the form of interest. Most UK shares will provide income in the form of twice-yearly dividends.

Income Choice Annuity

This is our with-profits pension annuity and it’s no longer available.  It guarantees to pay a regular income usually for life linked to the investment performance of our With-Profits Fund. It lets you choose your starting income from within a set range and includes a Secure Level - an amount we guarantee to pay you which has the potential to increase but can never go down.

Income Drawdown

Enables people with a certain type of pension to draw an income and/or cash lump sums from their pension fund rather than buying an annuity and to take income direct from their pension fund.

Income Tax

Tax paid by individuals on income received over a certain amount, dependent on the tax thresholds in place for the year in question.

Independent Financial Adviser (IFA)

(See Financial Adviser)

Index

In the stock market, an index is a device that measures changes in the prices of a basket of shares, and represents the changes using a single figure. The purpose is to give investors an easy way to see the general direction of shares in the index. Examples of stock market indices are the FTSE 100, FTSE All-Share, Nikkei and Dow Jones.

Index Fund

A fund that is managed so as to generate the same returns as a specified Index (also known as "Passive" or "Tracker" funds).

Index Linked

The linking of a payment such as a pension to an inflation index - for example the Retail Prices Index (RPI) - with the aim of keeping pace with inflation.

Indexation

Another name for index tracking. An investment strategy designed to produce a rate of return in line with a specific financial index. This term is also used to describe automatic increases in pension contributions.

Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB)

A method of classification developed by FTSE. It is used to segregate markets into economic sectors. The ICB uses a system of 10 industries, partitioned into 19 supersectors, which are further divided into 41 sectors, which then contain 114 subsectors.

Inflation

The rate of increase in the price of commodity products over time as recorded in an index such as the Retail Prices Index (RPI). This can affect the buying power of investments when cashed in at a future date.

Inheritance Tax (IHT)

Inheritance Tax is paid if a person’s estate (their property, money and possessions) is worth more than a certain amount when they die. This is called the ‘Inheritance Tax threshold’. For up to date information on Inheritance Tax please take a look around our website, speak to your financial adviser, or visit the MoneyHelper website: https://www.moneyhelper.org.uk/en

Initial Charge

A charge made by an investment provider to cover the cost of setting up an investment. The amount invested is the amount contributed less the initial charge.

Interactive factsheet

An online fund factsheet that allows you to choose sections of content and perform tasks such as expanding and adding data.

Interest Rate

The amount of money a customer can earn on an investment or is charged for borrowing money. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the total amount invested or borrowed.

Inter-Spouse/Civil Partner Transfers

A tax-free transfer between husband and wife/civil partner under inheritance tax rules.

Intestate/Intestacy

This refers to a person dying without a valid will. Upon death the person's assets are distributed according to the law, regardless of the person's intent when they were alive.

Investment Certificate

A document showing details of units held within a unit trust or shares or bonds.

Investment Grade

A credit rating given to a Government or Corporate bond that indicates that the agency giving the rating(e.g. Standard&Poors) believes that the issuer has a relatively low risk of default. Bonds with credit ratings of AAA,AA,A or BBB are considered investment grade. Low rated bonds with ratings of BB or below are often called High-Yield or Junk Bonds.

Investment Trust

A company that invests in the shares of other companies, or other assets such as property or bonds. When investing in an investment trust, customers actually own shares in the investment trust rather than owning the shares it invests in.

IPO (Initial Public Offering)

Initial Public Offering. When the shares of a company are available to buy for the first time.

ISA (Individual Savings Account)

A savings vehicle that allows customers to invest in equities, (stocks and shares) or save cash without having to pay any income or capital gains tax.

ISIN

An international security identification code. 

J

Joint-Life Annuity

An annuity that pays you a regular income for life and then when you die usually pays your dependant a regular income for life too.

Junk Bond

A high­-risk Bond of below Investment Grade, issued by a company or government. 

K

No glossary term available for this letter. 

L

Legacy Plans

Plans which are no longer open to new business (but may be available for top- ups)

LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate)

This is the interest rate that London banks charge when lending money to one another over a short period of time. LIBOR is often used as a benchmark when setting other short term interest rates.

The British Pound Sterling (GBP) LIBOR has now been replaced by Sterling Overnight Index Average (SONIA). However, the United States Dollar (USD) LIBOR will still continue in the meantime.

Life Assurance

An assurance policy that pays out a lump sum or instalments on the death of the life assured.

Life Fund

A pool of money and/or assets such as property or shares held by a fund into which all life assurance policyholders' premiums are paid and from which claims are made.

Lifetime Allowance

There is no limit on how big your pension fund can grow to, however you will have a lifetime allowance in relation to the maximum amount of tax-relieved benefits you can build up over your lifetime. If you think you are affected by this limit you can get more information visit HMRC website at www.hmrc.gov.uk

Lifetime Mortgage

This is a loan secured against the value of your property that can be converted into a cash lump sum or income, without the need to move. You can also do this using a home reversion scheme. These types of plans are sometimes referred to as equity release.

Limited Company

A British term for a corporation, a limited company is a business entity that limits the liability of shareholders to the extent of their investment.

Liquidity

This is how quickly an asset, such as equities, corporate bonds or property, can be traded within a market and turned into cash.

Listed Company

A company that satisfies the listings rules of a stock exchange, and whose shares are quoted and traded on a stock exchange.

Loan to Value (LTV)

The ratio between the value of an asset (such as property) to the value of the loan that will finance the purchase of that asset. LTV tells the lender if potential losses due to non-payment may be recouped by selling the asset.

London Interbank Bid Rate (LIBID)

This is the interest rate at which banks bid for cash deposits from each other.

Long Term Care Bonds

An investment bond that is designed to cover the costs of care in old age. Can be used to cover residential home costs as well as expenses incurred when care takes place within the home.

Long Dated Bonds

Bonds that will not reach Maturity for at least 15 years.

Long Earnings Limit

If you are an employee, the lower earnings limit is the point at which your earnings start to build up entitlement to state pension benefits. The 'primary threshold' is the point at which you start to pay National Insurance contributions. 

M

Managed Fund

Usually a fund choice within a unit-linked policy. Managed funds are generally made up of units from a wide spread of other specialist funds or investments so spreading the risk of volatility.

Marginal Tax Rate

This is the amount of tax paid on each additional pound of income. For more information please see www.pru.co.uk/tax.

Market Capitalisation

This is the total value of a company's issued securities at their current market prices. This figure should include all the different types of security issued by the company, such as shares and bonds, but is often used in relation to the equity or stockmarket capitalisation. The market capitalisation of a company is the market price per share multiplied by the number of shares in issue. Companies are often referred to as large cap(an abbreviation for large market capitalisation),mid cap (an abbreviation for a medium-­sized company by market capitalisation) or Small Cap (an abbreviation for small market capitalisation).

Market Value

The value of an asset to a third party on the open market.

Market Value Reduction (MVR)

If you take money out of a with-profits fund, an adjustment may be made to the value of the withdrawal if the value of the underlying assets is less than the value of your plan including bonuses. This adjustment is known as a market value reduction.

Maturity

The specified date when a policy comes to an end and the policy benefits are paid. In the context of fixed interest investments ( bonds), this means the lifetime of the bond.

Medium-Dated Bonds

Bonds that are due to reach Maturity within the next five to 15years.

Member

A person who has been admitted to membership of a pension scheme.

MEXID

A security identification code issued by the Financial Times.

Minimum Contributions

Contributions payable to an appropriate personal pension or stakeholder pension by HM Revenue & Customs in respect of a member who has contracted out of SERPS or the State Second Pension. This could also refer to minimum contribution levels that can be paid into a financial product.

Minimum Income Guarantee (MIG)

This was a means-tested benefit that helped individuals on low incomes at retirement. It has now been replaced by Pension Credit.

Minimum Payments

This is the smallest amount an employer is allowed to pay into a contracted out money purchase scheme. This amount will give the employee protected rights.

Monetary Policy

A way of influencing the economy by controlling the availability and cost of money (mainly through changing interest rates).

Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)

The MPC is a committee of the Bank of England which meets monthly to vote on whether changes to interest rates should be made.

Money Market Instruments

These include bank deposits, certificates of deposits or fixed interest securities. The return achieved from money market instruments is a combination of interest and any changes in the value of the instruments. Money market instruments can be considered to be very low risk, but there are circumstances where they can fall in value.

Money Market Investments

Defined as cash and near cash such as bank deposits, certificates of deposits, fixed interest securities or floating rate notes, with, where applicable, a maturity date of under a year.

Money Purchase Pension

A pension scheme where the contributions made by the individual (and their employer in respect of a company pension scheme) are set and the final fund is then used to buy an annuity. These are also known as defined contribution schemes.

Money Purchase Scheme

A pension scheme where the contributions made by the individual (and their employer in respect of a company pension scheme) are set. These are also known as defined contribution schemes.

Money Purchase Pension Scheme

A pension scheme where the contributions are made by the individual and their employer in respect of a company pension scheme. 

N

Nasdaq

Stands for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation. A US based stock exchange originally focusing on smaller or new companies, often high­-tech, but now includes big companies such as Microsoft.

National Insurance Contributions

A tax paid by most employers and employees to the UK government. For the employed it is deducted from income by the employer on a scale related to income levels. The self-employed pay contributions based on profit and like the unemployed may pay a flat-rate voluntary contribution to keep their benefit entitlements up to date.

Negative Equity

When the amount left outstanding on the mortgage is greater than the value of the related property.

If you have taken out a lifetime mortgage, you may be able to secure a 'no negative equity guarantee'. This means that if your property ends up being worth less than the amount you owe after you die or move into permanent long term care, your provider will cover the difference so your family will not have to pay anything.

Net

This is the sum you have remaining when there is nothing else to be deducted.

Net Interest

Interest received on a savings account after tax and charges have been deducted.

Net Pension Contributions

Pension contributions taken from bank accounts or after-tax salary. Tax relief is claimed back from HMRC by the pension provider.

Nominal Value

The face value of something, for example a share issue.

Non-Contributory Pension

A company pension where the employee does not make any type of contribution. It is entirely funded by the employer.

Non-fault claim

A non-fault claim is where the insurer can make a full recovery of their costs. It's not a comment on who's to blame for an incident.

Normal Retirement Date

Refers to the date at which a member of a pension scheme normally becomes entitled to receive his/her retirement benefits.

Notice Of Coding

A notice of coding shows your tax code if you are going to pay through the PAYE system. It is usually sent out in January or February for the tax year beginning 6 April. 

O

OAT

A French Government Bond.

OATi

An inflation­ proofed Bond issued by the French Government.

Occupational Pension Scheme

A pension scheme provided (sponsored) by an employer for its employees. Occupational pension schemes can be defined benefit schemes (final salary schemes) or defined contribution schemes (money purchase schemes).

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co­operation and Development. An organisation set up to help member countries to develop policies to promote continued economic growth.

OEIC (Open Ended Investment Company)

An investment company where shares can be created or cancelled to match demand, in a way similar to the units of a unit trust. The principal difference lies in the fact that there is a 'single price' to which is added the initial charge for purchase.

Offer (Buying) Price

The price you buy shares or units for in a unit trust. The price you get when you sell shares or units in a unit trust is known as the Bid (Selling) Price. The difference between the two is often referred to as a Bid Offer Spread.

Offer to Bid

In the context of measuring performance, offer to bid refers to the comparison between the original purchase cost or offer price - usually of a unit trust - and its current bid price, the price you receive if you sell. This measures the actual return you would get if you sell.

Offer to Offer

In the context of measuring performance, offer to offer refers to the comparison between the original purchase cost or offer price - usually of a unit trust - and its current offer price. This measures how the investment has performed without taking account of the initial charge.

Offshore

The concept of 'offshore' has no strict legal definition. Broadly speaking, though, it refers to jurisdictions that offer concessionary taxation regimes compared to major 'onshore' centres, such as the UK or US. Additional characteristics of some offshore centres include such things as banking confidentiality and less strict company formation rules.

Options

Legal agreements that give the holder the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell the underlying asset at an expiration date, at a price determined at the time of dealing.

Ordinary Residence

'Ordinary residence' applies when you live in the UK year after year. The term 'residence' applies when you are in the UK for 183 days or more in the tax year. You may be resident but not ordinarily resident in the UK for a tax year if, for example, you normally live outside the UK but are in the UK for 183 days or more in the tax year. Or you may be ordinarily resident but not resident for a tax year if for example you usually live in the UK but have gone abroad for a long holiday and do not set foot in the UK during that year. (See also domicile). Please refer to HM Revenue & Customs for full details. The above is based on our understanding of current legislation and HM Revenue & Customs' practice, all of which is subject to change without notice. The impact of taxation (and any tax reliefs) depends on individual circumstances.

Ordinary Shares

Also known as equity shares, these are the most common form of share in the UK. They give the owner a right to share in the profits of a company (dividends) and to vote at general meetings of the company.

Overfunding

Where a defined benefit/final salary pension arrangement has assets which exceed those required to meet its liabilities (the benefits allowed). 

P

Passive Management

An investment approach that aims to mirror or track the performance of a financial index. This is normally done by either investing in the exact constituents of an index or by taking a representative sample of that index. The managers of the fund have lower expenses than active fund managers, and the charges to investors are therefore lower.

PAYE (Pay As You Earn)

HM Revenue & Customs' system for collecting income tax from the pay of employees as they earn it.

Pension Annuity

This is a type of annuity usually bought with the proceeds of an HMRC registered pension scheme. Find out more about pension annuities in our guide. See also Conventional Annuity, Guaranteed Pension Annuity, Income Choice Annuity and Enhanced Annuity.

Pension Credit

A benefit for people who have a relatively low income, even if they have some savings and modest retirement income, and can be paid on top of a state pension scheme. There are two elements - the Guarantee Credit, which can be claimed by pensioners aged 60 or over, and the Savings Credit for those 65 or over. The latter rewards pensioners with a second pension or modest savings. This term is also used to describe an amount of pension transferred to an ex-spouse following divorce.

Pension Fund

General term used to describe the investment fund built up in a pension plan and used at retirement to provide a continuing income.

Pension Income

The regular income provided by a pension annuity or via flexi-access drawdown.

Pension Transfers

Refers to the process by which the current value of a pension plan can be transferred from one registered pension scheme to another registered pension scheme. The value is normally transferred direct from one employer or pension provider to another.

Pensionable Earnings

Earnings on which benefits and contributions in a pension scheme are calculated.

Pensionable Service

Period of service with a company that is used in the calculation of pension benefits in a defined benefit/final salary scheme.

Permanent Interest Bearing Shares (usually referred to as PIBS)

These are fixed-­interest securities issued by building societies. Building societies use them in the way public limited companies would use preference shares (see above). Although similar to bonds, PIBS typically exist as long as their issuer does. They typically offer better interest rates than bonds although unlike bonds have no fixed redemption date and so redemption value will be determined by market values at the time of sale. PIBS are not covered by UK government compensation schemes. If the building society is in financial distress, amounts are paid to holders of PIBS only after depositors.

Personal Allowance

The Personal Allowance is the amount of income you can earn before paying tax.

Your Personal Allowance may be bigger if you claim  Blind Person’s Allowance. It’s smaller if your income is over £100,000. You may also receive a tax deduction if you are eligible for Marriage Allowance.

For up to date  information on this subject, please visit our website at www.pru.co.uk/tax, speak to your financial adviser or visit the MoneyHelper website https://www.moneyhelper.org.uk/en

Personal Equity Plan (PEP)

From April 6 2008, Personal Equity Plans (PEPs) ceased to exist and are now treated as stocks and shares ISAs. (They were available for investment between 1987 and 1999, allowing you to enjoy the profits from stock market-related investment, free of income tax and capital gains tax.)

Personal Pension

A private pension that you can take from job to job. The other main types of personal pension schemes are group personal pensions (GPP), stakeholder pensions and self invested personal pensions (SIPPS).

Policy

A document giving all of the details of the agreement between the policyholder and the insurer.

Policy Conditions

The terms of a policy, which sets out the rights and responsibilities of the parties involved.

Policyholder

Generally taken to mean the owner of the policy.

Policy excess (home)

The policy excess is the amount you pay towards a claim. If you claim on the Buildings and Contents section for the same event we will only charge one policy excess.

Policy excess (motor)

The amount you have to pay towards each claim. If you are over 21 years of age you can select a voluntary excess, in return for a reduction in premium.

Pooled Investments

Investments such as unit trusts, where a number of people put their money together to enable them to buy a wider range of investments, thereby spreading the risk of volatility.

Potentially Exempt Transfer

Gifts on which inheritance tax will not be payable unless the donor dies within seven years.

Pound Cost Averaging

The term used to describe the effect of paying a fixed regular amount into a unitised investment fund where the value of units fluctuates. The amount will purchase more units when prices are low and vice versa.

Pre-existing medical condition

Medical conditions that include cancers, heart conditions, breathing conditions, bone or joint conditions or any terminal prognosis. For the full list of what is covered please see your policy.

Preference Shares (also called Preferred Stock or Preferred Shares)

These are shares in a company which give their holders an entitlement to a fixed dividend payment and may or may not carry voting rights. These are a "higher ranking" stock than common stock and usually have specific rights attached to them. Preference shares mean that the holder may get preferred treatment over common share holders - and carry a dividend that is paid out prior to dividends to common share holders. In the event of bankruptcy preferred share holders will be paid out from assets before common share holders and after debt holders.

Premium

The periodic payments a policyholder makes to an insurance policy or the amount of money an individual pays into a saving or investment product, as either a lump sum or a regular payment.

Premium Frequency

How often the premium is paid, such as monthly or annually.

Preserved Benefits

If a member of an occupational pension scheme leaves the company after less than two years' service, the employee can take a refund of any personal contributions, less certain deductions. But if the employee has been a member of the scheme for more than two years, the benefits must be preserved within the scheme or transferred to another pension scheme, and will be paid at a future date.

Price/Earnings (p/e) Ratio

A measure of a company's value relating to its share price and profitability. (p/e = share price divided by the Earnings Per Share. Also called earnings multiple or multiple).

Primary Industry

The industrial sector of an economy involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing. A company in a primary industry can also be involved in turning natural resources into products. Primary industries tends to make up a larger portion of the economy of developing countries than they do for developed countries.

Private Equity

This is money invested in private companies (those companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange, such as the London Stock Exchange) or which is used to buy out publicly traded companies in order to make them private companies.

Property

In the context of 'Property' as a type of asset, investment is usually in commercial property such as offices, shops and industrial premises.

Protected Rights

Protected Rights are a type of pension fund. The pension fund is built up by money coming in from the government for those of you who, have been in the past or still are, "contracted out" of the State Second Pension, now commonly known as S2P. All protected rights is now treated in the same way as other 'excess' benefits.

Prudential Group Funds

These are funds that are managed by either Prudential or M&G fund managers.

Prudential International Funds

Funds which are available to products issued by Prudential International.

Purchased Life Annuity

This is a type of annuity bought with a lump sum of money from personal savings or investments. Part of the annuity is deemed to be interest paid on the capital and is taxed. The other part is considered to be a return of capital and so is not liable to tax. The annuity rates for purchased life annuities and pension annuities differ. 

Q

QIS

A qualified investor scheme (QIS) is a type of authorised investment fund, regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). Investors in a QIS will be institutional investors, such as life and pension funds.

Quartile

The division of a spread of values into four. A statistical division is generally used in financial services to denote performance of, say, a particular type of fund. Comparisons of similar funds are shown in a league table, which is divided into four quarters or quartiles. 

R

Rating (Credit)

See "Credit Rating".

Real Interest Rate

The interest rate after the effects of inflation have been taken into account - e.g. interest rates that are high may actually be relatively low in "real" terms if inflation is also very high.

Real Return

The Return from an investment adjusted to take into account the effect of inflation.

Rebate-Only Personal Pension

A personal pension that is made up solely of the National Insurance rebates, payable by HM Revenue & Customs, where the member has elected to contract out of SERPS or the State Second Pension.

Recession

A fall in economic activity. Technically, for an economy to be in Recession, it must have endured two successive quarters of falling GDP.

Recovery Stock

Shares in a company whose share price has fallen substantially but is expected to recover.

Redemption Date

The date on which the borrower will repay the money used to buy a Bond or Gilt.

Regular Bonus

Bonus that is added to a with-profits investment during the course of the policy.

Regulated

This means the portfolio or fund has to conform to the regulations laid down by the financial authority it is trading in (i.e. in the UK the FCA protects the investor and provides structure around the products), financial service providers and markets.

Repurchase Agreements (also known as Repo)

An agreement in which one party sells securities to another party and agrees to repurchase those securities on a specified later date at a specified price.

Required Smoothed Return

This is the rate of Smoothed Return needed to maintain your chosen level of income under an Income Choice Annuity.

Retail Price Index (RPI)

The official “cost of living” Index in the UK based on a monthly survey of the prices of a basket of goods and services. The RPI is used to measure inflation.

Retail Prices Index (RPI)

A monthly indication of the average price changes to a particular 'basket' of consumer goods, and used as a general indicator of price inflation.

Retirement Date

This is the date that you choose to retire.

The minimum age from which you can access your personal or occupational pension is 55. This is expected to increase to age 57 in 2028 and remain at 10 years below the State Pension age.

It's worth knowing that you can only get your State pension when you reach State pension age.

Your State pension age depends on when you were born.

You can find out your state pension age here:

https://www.moneyhelper.org.uk/en/pensions-and-retirement/state-pension/state-pension-an-overview

Return

A measure of performance. It is the total of the increase in value and any income received over a given period, expressed as a percentage.

Risk

In investment terms, the balance of potential loss and potential gain as perceived by the investor. In insurance terms, the likelihood of a claim being made on a policy during the term.

Risk Premium

The extra Return that investors require, to hold a risky asset instead of one that has no risks. 

S

Salary Sacrifice

A tax-efficient method of increasing the money paid into a pension scheme by giving up existing salary or proposed salary increases, so that the sum forgone can be used as an additional company contribution into a pension scheme.

Scottish Rate of Income Tax

If you're a Scottish tax payer the amount of tax you'll  pay on non-savings and non-dividend income (NSND) is set by the Scottish Government.

NSND income includes employment income, profits from self-employment (including sole traders and partnerships), rental profits, and pension income (including the State pension).

Other taxes and deductions, such as Corporation Tax, tax on dividends, tax on savings income and National Insurance Contributions, together with allowances such as the Personal Savings Allowance, are based on UK tax rules.

For more information on the Scottish Rate of Income Tax, please visit our website at www.pru.co.uk/tax or www.gov.uk/scottish-rate-income-tax

Secondary Industry

The industrial sector of an economy that produces finished, usable products. Unlike a primary industry, which collects and produces raw materials for manufacture, a secondary industry makes products that are more likely to be consumed by individuals. Examples of secondary industry divisions include automobile manufacturing, steel production and telecommunications.

Section 226 (Retirement Annuity Contract)

In effect, an old form of pension. Prior to 1 July 1988, people not in pensionable employment (employment where no pension scheme exists or where a scheme exists but was not joined) or people who were self-employed, were able to qualify for tax relief for contributions made to a pension scheme known as a Retirement Annuity under Section 226 of the Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1970.

Securities

A term used to describe stocks and shares.

SEDOL

a security identification code issued by the London Stock Exchange (or the Irish Stock Exchange for Prudential International funds)

Segregated Fund

Pension scheme investments managed alongside, but separately from, other investments under control of a particular manager.

Selling (Bid) Price

The price at which you can sell shares or units in a unit trust. The price at which you can buy shares or units in a unit trust is known as a Buying (Offer) Price.

SERPS (State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme)

SERPS was replaced by the State Second Pension in April 2002. Prior to that date part of an employee's National Insurance contribution went into the scheme, which was paid on top of the basic state pension on retirement. It was dependent on a person's earnings while they were in employment and the National Insurance contributions they paid.

Share Capital

The money paid (subscribed) for ordinary and preference shares in a limited company. Authorised share capital means the total amount of shares available to be issued. Issued share capital relates to the total amount of shares actually subscribed to.

Share Exchange

Under a share exchange, shares are sold and the proceeds are put into an investment. There may be dealing charges involved, although these may be less than if the shares were simply sold through a stockbroker in the normal way.

Share Option

An offer by a company (usually to its employees and directors) to buy its shares at a given price, before a specified date. A number of approved share option schemes offer tax-free capital growth.

Share

See Equities

Shopping around

You don't have to take your retirement income from Prudential. You can shop around and depending on the choices you make, you may be able to get a higher income elsewhere.

Short-Dated Bonds

Bonds which are due to reach Maturity in the next five years.

Short-Term Interest Rates

The interest rate charged on a loan of up to three months expressed in equivalent annual terms.

Single Life Annuity

An annuity that pays you alone a regular income for life.

Single Swinging Price

A method of pricing for investment funds. On any trading day, if more cash comes into the fund than leaves it, investors will be buying and selling units at the Offer Price, if there is a net outflow, then the Bid Price is used.

SIPPS (Self Invested Personal Pensions)

A specialist product that allows more flexibility over where your money is invested. These pensions suit people who want to make their own investment decisions and are comfortable with taking on the higher associated risk.

Small Gifts Allowance

An annual inheritance tax (IHT) allowance, enabling a donor to give up to £250 per year to any number of separate individuals (donees).

Smaller Companies

Companies quoted on a recognised exchange that have a market worth below that of blue chip companies. In the UK, smaller companies are typically defined as those with market capitalisations below the top 350 companies in the FTSE All­-Share Index.

Smoothed Return

This is your share of the overall profits of our With-Profits Fund which we announce each year in relation to an Income Choice Annuity.

Sterling Overnight Index Average (SONIA)

Is an interest rate that is published and administered by the Bank of England who are responsible for its governance and publication every London business day. SONIA is based on actual transactions and reflects the average of the interest rates that banks pay to borrow sterling overnight from other financial institutions and other institutional investors.

Spot Rate

The price that is quoted for immediate settlement on a commodity, a security or a currency.

SRI - Socially Responsible Investment

Investments in companies whose activities are considered ethical. Depending on its objective, a fund may not invest in certain types of companies (e.g. tobacco firms or weapons manufacturers).

Stakeholder Pension

Stakeholder pensions were introduced on 6 April 2001 to give everyone the opportunity to provide for their retirement. They are especially suitable if you can only afford to save small sums. For added protection, the government laid down minimum standards to ensure that all stakeholder pensions met the same basic criteria for payments, costs and terms. For more information on Stakeholder pensions please refer to www.pru.co.uk/existing-customers/products/stakeholder-pension

Stamp Duty Land Tax

You must pay Stamp Duty Land Tax ( SDLT ) if you buy a property or land over a certain price in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. SDLT no longer applies in Scotland.

State Pension

The flat rate (not earnings-related) state pension paid to all who have met the minimum National Insurance contribution requirements. This changes each year on 6 April.

To satisfy the minimum National Insurance contributions requirement you need to have built up enough qualifying years. You will need 30 qualifying years for a full basic state pension.

For more information please visit www.pru.co.uk/tax.

The above is based on our understanding,  of current legislation and HM Revenue & Customs' practice, all of which is subject to change without notice. The impact of taxation (and any tax reliefs) depends on individual circumstances.

State Pension Age

The State Pension Age is the date when you are eligible to receive a State Pension. Between April 2016 and November 2018, State Pension age for women will increase gradually to 65. Between December 2018 and October 2020 this is will increase gradually for both men and women to age 66. State Pension age will then increase from age 66 to age 67 between 6 April 2026 and 5 April 2028. These ages may change in future as result of changes in life expectancy and other factors. Find out more here https://www.gov.uk/state-pension-age

State Pension Schemes

Basic state pension - if you have a full National Insurance contribution record you are entitled to the full basic state pension.

State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme - depends on your earnings and National Insurance contribution made while you were in employment. SERPS is paid in addition to the basic state pension. The self-employed do not qualify for this pension.

State Second Pension - this replaced SERPS in April 2002. More help will be given to the lowest earners, than under SERPS. (See also S2P).

State Second Pension (S2P)

This is an extra pension you may receive depending on the amount you earn and the additional National Insurance contributions you have made. More help will be given to the lowest earners, particularly those earning about £10,000 a year. This benefit replaced the State Earnings Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) in April 2002. The self-employed do not qualify.

You may have contracted-out of the S2P so that part of your National Insurance contribution could be paid into a personal or employer pension

Stock Exchange

A market where stocks and shares are bought and sold.

Stock Market

A place where shares or other securities are bought and sold, for instance the London Stock Exchange.

Stockbrokers

Agents who buy and sell stocks and shares for customers.

Stocks and Shares

Sold by a company to raise money, these give the owners a right to share in the profits and success of a company through voting rights, dividends and/or capital appreciation. A stock generally refers to fixed interest securities, usually issued in denominations of £100.

Subsidence

Subsidence is the downward movement of the site on which a building stands - where the soil beneath the building's foundations is unstable. The movement is not caused by the weight of the building.

Sum Assured

The guaranteed amount paid on death under a life assurance policy. Depending on the policy held, this sum might be increased through the addition of bonuses.

Surrender Value

The amount of money that will be paid to a policyholder if they discontinue a policy before it matures. The benefits the customer usually receives are reduced because of the effects of the charges.

Switching

Transferring sums of money from one unit-linked or with-profits fund to another. This is usually done on a bid-to-bid basis to avoid 'new money' charges when buying units at the offer price. (See Offer To Bid and Offer To Offer). 

T

Taper Relief

The purpose of taper relief is to reduce the amount of tax you have to pay to account for the effect of inflation.

Taper relief applies to inheritance tax (IHT) if the donor dies between three and seven years after making a potentially exempt transfer (or transfers) of more than the nil rate band. It applies both to business and non-business assets, although different rules apply for each. Taper relief is calculated on the basis of how long you have held the asset for.

Taper relief also used to apply to capital gains tax (CGT) to reduce the amount of tax paid through the sale of shares, property or other capital assets, but this was abolished in the 2008 Budget.

Tax Credit

A state benefit paid to employees through the tax system, which has the effect of increasing net income.

Tax Relief

The UK government encourages you to save for your retirement by giving you tax relief on pension contributions. Tax relief works by reducing your tax bill or increasing your pension fund.

Tax Year

A period of time used for tax calculations. In the UK this starts on 6 April each year and finishes on 5 April the following year.

Term Assurance

A simple life assurance policy that pays out on the death of the customer during the time period in years specified by the policy.

Terminal or Final Bonus

A discretionary bonus that may be added to a with-profits policy out of a life fund's surplus profit. This bonus would be payable at the end of the term of the policy (at maturity), or when a claim is made e.g. death or surrender.

TESSAs (Tax Exempt Special Savings Accounts)

A bank or building society account that offers tax-free interest, dividends and bonuses provided the account is maintained for a fixed period of five years. TESSAs were replaced by Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs) in 1999 as a tax-efficient way of saving over the medium- to long-term.

Testate

A person who dies having made a will is described as testate.

Tied Adviser

A salesperson who sells the policies of one particular insurance company (to which they have made a contractual agreement). Some sales people are tied to several companies (multi-tied).

TIPS

Treasury Inflation Protected Securities - a Bond issued by the US Treasury that offers protection from inflation through interest payments that are linked to the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Top-Down Analysis

An investment approach where a manager looks at a country's economy before considering an industry to invest in. Next, they determine what industries will perform well, and finally, they buy shares in companies that are attractive within that industry (see also "Bottom­Up Analysis").

Tracker Funds

Aim to mirror or 'track' the performance of any of a number of worldwide stock market indices, such as the FTSE 100 Index. (See also Passive Management).

Transfer Payment

Payment made from a pension scheme to another pension scheme, in lieu of benefits which have accrued to the member, to enable the receiving scheme to provide alternative benefits. The amount transferred is known as the transfer value.

Transferable Securities

This is a descriptor given to a type of financial security which is traded on capital markets. The term is probably most commonly known and used in association with UCITS in UK and Europe (examples would be UCITS/depositary receipts/some types of warrants).

Troy oz

This is the basic unit/ measurement of weight used in dealing with gold.

Trust

An arrangement whereby one person or persons (trustees) agree to take care of assets and to use those assets in particular ways for particular people (beneficiaries).

Trustee

A person appointed to manage and safeguard the assets of a trust. 

U

UFPLS (Uncrystallised Funds Pensions Lump Sum)

Since the 6 April 2015, from age 55 you are able to take all of a pension fund as a single or series of cash lump sums. The first 25% would be tax free, with the remaining added to your income and taxed accordingly.

UK Resident (for tax purposes)

If you are physically present in the UK for 183 days in a tax year then you will be resident in the UK and taxable on your income and capital gains. If you are abroad only temporarily, or if you spend an average of three months a year in the UK for four years, you will be treated as ordinarily resident and therefore taxable. Please refer to HM Revenue & Customs for full details.

The above is based on our understanding of current legislation and HM Revenue & Customs' practice, all of which is subject to change without notice. The impact of taxation (and any tax reliefs) depends on individual circumstances.

Underfunding

Generally refers to the valuation of a company final salary pension fund where the actuary perceives that there are insufficient funds to support liabilities within the investment review period.

Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS)

These are collective investments which can be sold across national borders within the EU having complied with regulations on investments and administration.

Unearned Income

Income received from sources such as interest on savings accounts, dividends from shares and bonds that has not been earned by working.

Unit Trust

A trust that pools together customers' money, allowing them to increase their investment options, therefore potentially reducing the risk. Unit trusts issue units, unlike OEICs which issue shares.

Unit trusts generally have two prices: a bid price at which you sell and an offer price at which you buy. The difference between the two is often referred to as a bid offer spread. Note: Prudential Unit Trusts have only one unit price.

Unit trusts are overseen by an independent body called the trustee.

Unitised With-Profits

A form of with-profits fund where the investor buys units whose value increases in line with any declared regular bonuses and to which a final bonus may be added when the units are cashed in.

Unit-Linked

Where the value of the saver's fund is linked to the value of the units of the fund it is invested in. (The value is directly dependent on the performance of the underlying asset).

Unit-Linked Annuity

This is a type of pension annuity. The income is linked to the performance of an underlying investment fund. The fund can be low, medium or high risk depending on what is offered by the provider or what risk the annuity owner is willing to take.

Units

When investing in a unit-linked contract or unit trust, the individual's contribution is used to buy units of equal value. The value of these units will fall or rise in line with the underlying investments.

Unregulated

This means the portfolio or fund does not need to conform to regulations.

UK Gilts

A bond issued by the British Government.

V

Valuation

A statement (verbal or written) confirming a plan's worth.

Value Investing

An investment process that chooses to invest in shares that are believed to have been under priced by the market.

Valuables (home)

  • Jewellery.
  • Watches.
  • Furs.
  • Sets of coins, stamps or medals.
  • Items or sets or collections of gold, silver or other precious metals.

Valuables (travel)

Personal items of value that are covered under your insurance. This includes cameras, sunglasses, computers, mobile phones and jewellery. For the full list of what is covered please see your policy.

Volatility

A measure of how much an investment's price is likely to fluctuate during a set period of time. 

W

Warrants

A warrant is a security that entitles the holder to buy shares in the issuing company at a specified price and within a certain time frame. Warrants are freely transferable and traded on major exchanges. Their value will go up or down as the price of the shares to which they relate goes up or down.

Whole-of-Life Policy

Life assurance a customer pays for throughout the whole of their life that pays out when they die. On some whole-of-life policies, premiums stop at a certain age.

Will

A document drawn up to administer an estate on death.

With-Profits Bonus

An amount that is added to a with-profits life assurance policy. It can be added within the term of the policy (regular) or at the end of a policy (final).

With-Profits Fund

Essentially a fund made up of shares, property, cash and fixed interest securities, which usually carries a medium risk.

The products that use with-profits are typically regular and single premium savings plans and pensions. With-profits funds pool policyholders' investments, and customers share in the company's investment returns and other profits. These returns are smoothed to help reduce the volatility associated with direct equity investments.

With-Profits Pension Annuity

This is our original with-profits pension annuity and it's no longer available. It guarantees to pay a regular income usually for life linked to the investment performance of our With-Profits Fund. If our With-Profits Fund performs better than expected, your income may increase and over the longer term potentially give you some protection against inflation.

With-Profits Policies

An investment where regular premiums or a lump sum are paid into a with-profits fund made up of shares, property, cash, and fixed interest securities. With-profits policies are usually medium-risk investments that use a smoothing device, when determining any bonus additions that might apply, to provide some protection for the investor from ups and downs of the market. 

X

No glossary term available for this letter. 

Y

Yield

A measure of the return on an investment compared to the price paid for it. This is normally expressed as an annual percentage. There are several types of yields. Bonds for instance have a nominal yield, current yield and yield to maturity. Shares have a dividend yield and an earnings yield. Yield can refer to growth or income, while net yield refers to the yield after charges and other deductions have been made.

Yield Curve

A graph showing the relationship between short-­term and long-­term Yields for a given type of asset, usually Bonds. 

Z

Zero Coupon Bonds

A Bond that pays no interest but is bought at a lower price than its Redemption Value.